Antecedents of manic versus other first psychotic episodes in 263 bipolar I disorder patients

Authors

  • P. Salvatore,

    1. Department of Psychiatry & Neuroscience Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    2. International Consortium for Psychotic & Bipolar Disorders Research, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA
    3. Section of Psychiatry, Department of Neuroscience, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
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  • R. J. Baldessarini,

    1. Department of Psychiatry & Neuroscience Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    2. International Consortium for Psychotic & Bipolar Disorders Research, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA
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  • H.-M. K. Khalsa,

    1. International Consortium for Psychotic & Bipolar Disorders Research, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA
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  • G. Vázquez,

    1. International Consortium for Psychotic & Bipolar Disorders Research, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA
    2. Department of Neuroscience, University of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Capital Federal, Argentina
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  • J. Perez,

    1. International Consortium for Psychotic & Bipolar Disorders Research, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA
    2. CAMEO Early Intervention Services, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
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  • G. L. Faedda,

    1. International Consortium for Psychotic & Bipolar Disorders Research, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA
    2. Lucio Bini' Mood Disorders Center, New York, NY, USA
    3. Department of Child Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
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  • M. Amore,

    1. Psychiatric Clinic, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology & Genetics, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
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  • C. Maggini,

    1. International Consortium for Psychotic & Bipolar Disorders Research, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA
    2. Section of Psychiatry, Department of Neuroscience, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
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  • M. Tohen

    1. International Consortium for Psychotic & Bipolar Disorders Research, Mailman Research Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA
    2. Department of Psychiatry University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
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Dr Paola Salvatore, International Consortium for Psychotic & Bipolar Disorders Research, Center Building-G-07B, McLean Hospital, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478-9106, USA.

E-mail: psalvatore@mclean.harvard.edu

Abstract

Objective

As initial episode type can predict later morbidity in bipolar disorder, we tested the hypothesis that clinical antecedents might predict initial episode types.

Method

We studied 263 first-episode, adult, DSM-IV-TR type I bipolar disorder (BD-I) subjects within the McLean-Harvard-International First-Episode Project. Based on blinded assessments of antecedents from SCID examinations and clinical records, we compared first lifetime manic vs. other (mixed, depressive, or non-affective) major psychotic episodes.

Results

We identified 32 antecedents arising at early, intermediate or later times, starting 12.3 ± 10.7 years prior to first lifetime major psychotic episodes. Based on multivariate modeling, antecedents associated significantly and independently with other (n = 113) more than manic (= 150) first lifetime major psychotic episodes ranked by odds ratio: more early attentional disturbances, more late depression, more early perplexity, more detoxification, more early unstable mixed affects, more antidepressants, more early dysphoria, more intermediate depression, more early impulsivity, more late anhedonia, longer early-to-intermediate intervals, more intermediate substance abuse, more family history of major depression, and younger at earliest antecedents. Antecedents selectively preceding manic more than other first psychotic episodes included more late behavioral problems and more risk of familial BD-I.

Conclusion

Clinical antecedents in adult, BD-I patients, beginning a decade before first major episodes and progressing through sequential stages were dissimilar in manic vs. other first psychotic episodes.

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