SAM: a comprehensive application for Spatial Analysis in Macroecology


  • Thiago F. Rangel,

  • Jose Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho,

  • Luis Mauricio Bini

T. F. Rangel (, Dept of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3043 USA. – J. A. F. Diniz-Filho and L. M. Bini, Depto de Ecologia, Univ. Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil.


SAM (Spatial Analysis in Macroecology) is a freeware application that offers a comprehensive array of spatial statistical methods, focused primarily on surface pattern spatial analysis. SAM is a compact, but powerful stand-alone software, with a user-friendly, menu-driven graphical interface. The methods available in SAM are the most commonly used in macroecology and geographical ecology, and range from simple tools for exploratory graphical analysis (e.g. mapping and graphing) and descriptive statistics of spatial patterns (e.g. autocorrelation metrics), to advanced spatial regression models (e.g. autoregression and eigenvector filtering). Download of the software, along with the user manual, can be downloaded online at the SAM website: <> (permanent URL at <>).