Using SAS PROC TCALIS for multigroup structural equation modelling with mean structures


Fei Gu, Department of Psychology and Research in Education, University of Kansas, 1122 West Campus Road, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA (e-mail:


Multigroup structural equation modelling (SEM) is a technique frequently used to evaluate measurement invariance in social and behavioural science research. Before version 9.2, SAS was incapable of handling multigroup SEM. However, this limitation is resolved in PROC TCALIS in SAS 9.2. For the purpose of illustration, this paper provides a step-by-step guide to programming the tests of measurement invariance and partial invariance using PROC TCALIS for multigroup SEM with mean structures. Fit indices and parameter estimates are validated, thus providing an alternative tool for researchers conducting both applied and simulated studies. Other new features (e.g., different types of modelling languages and estimation methods) and limitations (e.g., ordered-categorical SEM and multilevel SEM) of the TCALIS procedure are also briefly discussed.