Identifying between-person and within-person factors to enhance understanding of observed score profiles


Correspondence should be addressed to Se-Kang Kim, Department of Psychology, 441 E. Fordham Road, Bronx, NY 10458, USA (e-mail:


This study aims to reparameterize ordinary factors into between- and within-person factor effects and utilize an array of the within-person factor loadings as a latent profile which encapsulates all score responses of individuals in a population. To illustrate, the Woodcock–Johnson III (WJ-III) tests of cognitive abilities were analysed and one between- and two within-person factors were identified. The scoring patterns of individuals in the WJ-III sample were interpreted according to the within-person factor patterns. Regression analyses were performed to examine how much the within-person factors accounted for the person scoring patterns and criterion variables. Finally, the importance and applications of the between- and within-person factors are discussed.